SDMX Guidelines

SDMX GLossary

Version 2.0

October 2018

Please note that the SDMX Glossary is also available as a Cross-Domain Concept Scheme from the SDMX Global Registry.

Procedure for making direct links to specific terms in the Glossary (e.g. for citations, ease of navigation)

Let us assume that you want your users to be directly referred to the concept "Content-oriented guidelines (COG)" without them having to search the whole Glossary. To do this, go through the table of contents until you spot the entry "Content-oriented guidelines (COG)". You then have two options: a) if you do not want to check the content of the entry (because you know that it is the concept you are interested in), just do a right-click and select "Copy link address" in Chrome browser, "Copy Link Location" in Netscape, Opera and Firefox browsers, "Copy shortcut" in Internet Explorer, or similar functionality in other browsers; b) if you want to check the content of the entry before taking any action (e.g. because you are not sure that the definition suits your needs), click on the link; you will then be redirected to the place in the document where the entry "Content-oriented guidelines (COG)" is defined; if the entry meets your needs, simply copy the URL displayed in the address bar of your browser and paste it in your document. In the case of the "Content-oriented guidelines (COG)", the link will be the following: https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_2_0_October_2018.htm#_Toc441822032 (the segment " #_Toc529282104" is the part of the address that makes the concept directly referencable).

Document history

Version 1.0

Finalised in February 2016

Version 2.0

Finalised in October 2018

Introduction

The SDMX Glossary is an SDMX guideline containing concepts and related definitions that are useful for building and understanding data and metadata exchange arrangements based on SDMX. The Glossary provides definition of terms found in the SDMX Information Model, Data Structure Definitions[1] (DSDs), and Metadata Structure Definitions (MSDs) at the time of the present release. It is recommended as a single entry point to a common SDMX terminology to be used in order to facilitate communication and understanding of the standard.

In short, the overall message of the glossary is the following: if a term is used, then its precise meaning should correspond to the SDMX Glossary definition, and any reference to a particular phenomenon described in the SDMX Glossary should use the appropriate term.

The glossary is not intended to cover the whole range of statistical terminology, as this area is already covered by other general or domain-specific glossaries. The focus of the glossary is largely those terms that are normally used for building and understanding metadata systems and SDMX data exchange arrangements.

Business Case for the adoption of Cross-Domain Concepts (CDCs)

In the SDMX framework, "Cross-domain concepts" are Concepts relevant to several, if not all, statistical domains. SDMX recommends the use of these concepts, whenever feasible, in SDMX data and metadata structures and messages in order to promote re-usability and exchange of statistical information and their related metadata between organisations. Whenever used, these Concepts should conform to the specified names, ID, Representations and Codelists defined in the SDMX Content-Oriented Guidelines.

Cross-Domain Concepts (CDCs) are useful for exchanging data and metadata between multiple agencies and statistical subject-matter domains.

The CDCs, if adhered to by international organisations and national institutions, promote the:

         efficient exchange of data and related structural and reference metadata by interlinking statistical information systems of organisations, in spite of technological or linguistic differences that might exist between them from their internal perspectives;

         exchange of consistent metadata that can be used by different international organisations and national and regional data-producing agencies to compare concepts and practices;

         re-usability of exchange messages from an institution to other institutions, thereby reducing the overall data and metadata reporting burden.

Contact Address

For any question, comment or correction, feel free to contact the SDMX Statistical Working Group (SWG) at the following address: swg@sdmx.org.


Attributes used for describing concepts listed in the glossary

* Denotes mandatory fields

Term* Name of the concept. The term should preferably be entered in the singular form and upper cases should be avoided to the largest extent possible.

Definition* Short statement explaining the meaning of the concept. This textual description of the concept should answer the question "What is it?" rather than "How is it done?" or "Why do we have it?, etc. It is recommended to keep definitions short and add any explanatory text under field "Context".

Context Complementary information on the background, history, use, status, etc. of the concept. This field is used to add information on how and where the term may be used. It describes SDMX use cases for the term and may contain examples of its use. This field is optional, though strongly recommended.

Type Used to explicitly denote concepts which are cross-domain.

Concept ID* Unique identifier for the concept that allows it to be unambiguously used for machine-to-machine exchange.

Recommended representation Recommended type of value for the concept term. Examples are "primitive" types such as string (i.e. free text), or complex types such as Codelist, that is used for those terms that have an associated Codelist in Codelist ID. There may be more than one recommended type; in this case, the first type is recommended over the others. For time types, it could be possible to use a more precise representation of time than the recommended type (e.g. Reporting Time Period instead of Observational Time Period).

Codelist ID Unique identifier for the Codelist associated with the Concept. Most often it is the term's Concept ID prefixed by "CL_". For example, the "Observation Status" term has the Concept ID of OBS_STATUS, and the Codelist ID of CL_OBS_STATUS. This attribute is used only if the concept's "Recommended representation" includes "Codelist".

Related terms Entries in the SDMX Glossary that are closely associated with the concept term. It is possible here to create relationships between concepts, e.g. between "Reference metadata" and "Structural metadata". No hierarchy is created between the concepts linked, i.e. if a link is established between "Reference metadata" and "Metadata", a similar link will be established between "Metadata" and "Reference metadata".

Source Source information from which the definition was extracted. The reference must be as complete as possible. When available, the source is followed by a hyperlink, i.e. a link to the source material for the term.

Other link(s) Link(s) to material that is related, closely or loosely, to, but not directly associated with the concept source of the term, e.g. link to a general methodological document.


 

Table of Contents

Accounting conventions. 17

Accuracy. 17

Accuracy - overall 18

Action type. 18

Adjustment 18

Age. 19

Agency Scheme. 19

Aggregation operation. 20

Annotable Artefact 20

Annotation. 20

Artefact 21

Attachment level 21

Attribute. 21

Attribute Relationship. 22

Base period. 22

Base weight 23

Bilateral exchange. 23

Break reason. 23

Category. 24

Category Scheme. 24

Civil status. 24

Classification: See "Statistical classification". 25

Classification system.. 25

Code. 25

Codelist 25

Coding Format 26

Coherence. 26

Coherence - cross domain. 27

Coherence - internal 27

Comment 28

Comparability. 28

Comparability - geographical 29

Comparability - over time. 29

Compiling agency. 29

Component 30

Concept 30

Concept Scheme. 31

Confidentiality. 32

Confidentiality - data treatment 32

Confidentiality - policy. 33

Confidentiality - redistribution authorisation policy. 33

Confidentiality - status. 33

Constraint 34

Contact 34

Contact email address. 35

Contact fax number. 35

Contact mail address. 35

Contact name. 36

Contact organisation. 36

Contact organisation unit 37

Contact person function. 37

Contact phone number. 37

Content-Oriented Guidelines, COG.. 38

Cost and burden. 38

Cost and burden - efficiency management 39

Cost and burden - resources. 39

Counterpart reference area. 39

Coverage. 40

Coverage error. 40

Cross-domain Codelist, CDCL.. 41

Cross-domain Concept, CDC.. 42

Currency. 42

Data collection method. 42

Data compilation. 43

Data Consumer. 43

Data Consumer Scheme. 43

Data exchange. 44

Data extraction date. 44

Data description. 44

Dataflow.. 45

Data Provider. 45

Data Provider Scheme. 46

Data reference period: See "Time period - collection". 46

Data revision. 47

Data revision - policy. 47

Data revision - practice. 47

Data revision - studies. 48

Data Set 48

Data sharing. 49

Data Source. 49

Data Structure Definition, DSD.. 49

Data update - last update. 50

Data validation. 51

Decimals. 51

Dimension. 51

Dissemination agency. 52

Dissemination format 52

Dissemination format - microdata access. 52

Dissemination format - news release. 53

Dissemination format - online database. 53

Dissemination format - publications. 54

Dissemination format - other formats. 54

Documentation on methodology. 55

Documentation on methodology - advance notice. 55

DSD for global use. 55

Economic activity. 56

Economic sector. 56

Education level 57

Embargo time. 57

Expenditure according to purpose. 57

Facet 58

Fast-track change. 58

Frequency of data collection. 59

Frequency of dissemination. 59

Frequency of observation. 59

Geographical coverage. 60

Global registry. 60

Group Key. 61

Group key structure. 61

Hierarchical Code. 61

Hierarchical Codelist (HCL) 61

Hierarchy. 62

Hub (dissemination architecture) 62

Identifiable Artefact 63

Imputation. 63

Imputation rate. 63

Incremental update. 64

Indicator: See "Statistical indicator". 64

Indicator reference periodicity. 64

Institutional mandate. 64

Institutional mandate - data sharing. 65

Institutional mandate - legal acts and other agreements. 65

Institutional sector. 66

International String. 66

isExternalReference. 66

isIncluded. 67

Item Scheme. 67

Job. 67

Labour force status. 67

Language. 68

Level 68

Local DSD.. 69

Maintainable Artefact 69

Maintenance agency. 70

Map. 70

Measure. 71

Measurement error. 71

Member Selection. 72

Member Value. 72

Metadataflow.. 72

Metadata Key. 73

Metadata Key Set 73

Metadata key value. 73

Metadata repository. 73

Metadata Set 74

Metadata Structure Definition, MSD.. 74

Metadata update. 74

Metadata update - last certified. 75

Metadata update - last posted. 75

Metadata update - last update. 76

Model assumption error. 76

Multilateral exchange. 76

Nameable Artefact 77

Non-response error. 77

Non-sampling error. 78

Notification. 79

Observation pre-break value. 79

Observation status. 79

Observation Value. 80

Occupation. 80

Organisation Unit Scheme. 80

Ownership group. 81

Ownership sector. 81

Periodicity: See "Frequency of observation". 81

Population coverage. 82

Preferred scale. 82

Price adjustment 82

Processing error. 83

Professionalism.. 83

Professionalism - code of conduct 84

Professionalism - impartiality. 84

Professionalism - methodology. 85

Professionalism - statistical commentary. 85

Provision Agreement 85

Pull (reporting method) 85

Punctuality. 86

Push (reporting method) 86

Quality management 86

Quality management - quality assessment 87

Quality management - quality assurance. 87

Quality management - quality documentation. 87

Reference area. 88

Reference metadata. 88

Reference period. 89

Release policy. 89

Release policy - release calendar. 90

Release policy - release calendar access. 90

Release policy - transparency. 90

Release policy - user access. 91

Relevance. 91

Relevance - completeness. 92

Relevance - user needs. 92

Relevance - user satisfaction. 92

Reporting agency. 93

Reporting Category. 93

Reporting Taxonomy. 93

Representation. 93

Sampling error. 94

SDMX-CSV.. 94

SDMX-EDI. 95

SDMX Information Model, SDMX-IM... 95

SDMX-JSON.. 96

SDMX-ML.. 96

SDMX Registry. 97

SDMX Registry Interface (in the context of registry) 97

SDMX Technical Specification. 98

Seasonal adjustment 98

Sector. 98

Sector coverage. 99

Series. 99

Series Key. 100

Sex. 100

Sibling group. 100

Source data type. 101

Statistical Classification. 101

Statistical concepts and definitions. 101

Statistical Data and Metadata eXchange, SDMX.. 102

Statistical domain: See "Statistical subject-matter domain". 102

Statistical indicator. 102

Statistical population. 103

Statistical subject-matter domain. 104

Statistical unit 104

Statistical variable. 104

Status in employment 105

Status of worker. 105

Structural metadata. 106

Structural validation. 106

Structure Set 107

Subscription. 107

Time coverage. 107

Time format 108

Timeliness. 108

Timeliness - source data. 109

Time period. 109

Time period - collection. 109

Time series: See "Series". 110

Time transformation. 110

Title. 110

Title complement 111

Unit: See "Statistical unit". 111

Unit multiplier. 111

Unit of measure. 111

Usage status. 112

Validation and Transformation Language, VTL.. 112

Valuation. 112

Variable: See "Statistical variable". 113

Version. 113

Versionable Artefact 113

Vis-a-vis area: See "Counterpart reference area". 113

 


Accounting conventions

Definition Practical procedures, standards and other aspects used when compiling data from diverse sources under a common methodological framework.

Context This metadata element refers to descriptions of the types of prices used to value flows and stocks, or other units of measurements used for recording the phenomena being observed; the time of recording of the flows and stocks or the time of recording of other phenomena that are measured, including the reference period employed; and the grossing/netting procedures that are used.

Accounting conventions may refer to whether the data are recorded on a cash/accrual or mixed accounting basis, the time of their recording and the reference period (fiscal or calendar year) employed. The description could also include how consistent the practices used are with internationally accepted standards - such as the Balance of Payments Manual or SNA (System of National Accounts) - or good practices.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID ACC_CONV

Recommended representation String

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Accuracy

Definition Closeness of computations or estimates to the unknown exact or true values that the statistics were intended to measure.

Context The accuracy of statistical information is the degree to which the information correctly describes the phenomena it was designed to measure. It is usually characterised in terms of error in statistical estimates and is often decomposed into bias (systematic error) and variance (random error) components. Accuracy can be expressed as either measures of accuracy (numerical results of the methods for assessing the accuracy of data) or qualitative assessment indicators. It may also be described in terms of the major sources of error that potentially cause inaccuracy (e.g., coverage, sampling, non-response, response error). Accuracy is associated with the "reliability" of the data, which is defined as the closeness of the initial estimated value to the subsequent estimated value.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID ACCURACY

Recommended representation String

Related terms Accuracy - overall

Non-sampling error

Sampling error

Source The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, Yadolah Dodge (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003

Other link(s) Statistics Canada Quality Guidelines, "Defining Quality" (http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/12-539-x/4147797-eng.htm)

Accuracy - overall

Definition Assessment of accuracy, linked to a certain Data Set or domain, which is summarising the various components into one single measure.

Context This metadata element is used to describe the main sources of random and systematic error in the statistical outputs and provide a summary assessment of all errors with special focus on the impact on key estimates. The bias assessment can be in quantitative or qualitative terms, or both. It should reflect the producer's best current understanding (sign and order of magnitude) including actions taken to reduce bias. Revision aspects should also be included here if considered relevant.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID ACCURACY_OVERALL

Recommended representation String

Related terms Accuracy

Non-sampling error

Sampling error

Source Eurostat, "Technical Manual of the Single Integrated Metadata Structure (SIMS)", Luxembourg, 2014 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SIMS_Manual_2014.pdf)

Action type

Definition Behaviour to be undertaken by a system processing the information contained in a SDMX message.

Context The "Action type" specifies, for a data or a structure message, the action to be performed, e.g. append new data, replace or delete the data, as specified in the technical specifications.

Concept ID ACTION_TYPE

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Adjustment

Definition Set of procedures employed to modify statistical data to enable it to conform to national or international standards or to address data quality differences when compiling specific Data Sets.

Context Adjustments may be associated with changes in definitions, exchange rates, prices, seasons and other factors. Adjustments are in particular applied to compile consistent time series, but the concept is also used for describing adjustments related to other types of data.

Adjustment can be distinguished from editing and imputation, in that before adjustment, the data are already of sufficient quality to be considered usable.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID ADJUSTMENT

Recommended representation String

Related terms Price adjustment

Seasonal adjustment

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Other link(s) European Union, Commission Recommandation of 23 June 2009 on reference metadata for the European Statistical System (2009/498/EC), Official Journal of the European Union No L 168, 30.6.2009, p. 50 - 55 (https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:168:0050:0055:EN:PDF)

Age

Definition Length of time that an entity has lived or existed.

Context Age can be expressed as a number, e.g. 25 years old, or as a range, e.g. "between 25 and 29 years" or "6 to 11 months".

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID AGE

Recommended representation Codelist

Codelist ID CL_AGE

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Other link(s) Codelist CL_AGE (https://sdmx.org/?page_id=3215)

Agency Scheme

Definition Maintained collection of maintenance agencies.

Context In SDMX the Agency Scheme contains a non-hierarchic list of maintenance agencies. Each maintenance agency can have a single Agency Scheme, and may have none. The agencies in the Agency Scheme are deemed to be sub agencies of the maintenance agency of the scheme in which they reside. The top-level Agency Scheme is the scheme for which SDMX is the maintenance agency (SDMX Agency Scheme), and every Agency in every Agency Scheme must be related directly or indirectly via intervening Agency Schemes, to an Agency registered in the SDMX Agency Scheme. In this way each Agency can be identified uniquely by the combination of Agencies in the path from the SDMX Agency Scheme to the Agency Scheme in which it resides, plus its own identity in that scheme.

Concept ID AGENCY_SCH

Related terms Data Consumer Scheme

Data Provider Scheme

Item Scheme

Maintenance agency

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Aggregation operation

Definition Representation of the calculation type when a single value is calculated from a collection of values.

Context This element is part of the unit definition of a variable. An example use is when calculating the average daily temperature from all daily temperatures for one month, the aggregation operation is "Mean". Other typical values are "Median", "Count", "Weight", "Quintile n".

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID AGGREGATION_OPERATION

Recommended representation Codelist

Related terms Indicator reference periodicity

Measure

Unit multiplier

Unit of measure

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 2.0", October 2018

Annotable Artefact

Definition Construct capable of defining Annotations.

Context The Annotation in SDMX is way of extending the functionality of SDMX structural metadata.

Concept ID ANNOTABLE_ART

Related terms Annotation

Artefact

Identifiable Artefact

Maintainable Artefact

Nameable Artefact

Versionable Artefact

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Annotation

Definition Construct that contains user or organisation-specific metadata.

Context The Annotation construct in SDMX is available to most of the SDMX structural metadata artefacts. This facility is essentially a flexible extension mechanism allowing metadata to be added to SDMX structural metadata or to a Data Set. Note that whilst the SDMX Annotation has a specific structure (Title, Type, URL, Text) individual organisations are free to use these in any way and any combination they wish. An Annotation can only be processed in a meaningful way (i.e. other than viewing it) by systems that understand the semantic of the Annotation.

Concept ID ANNOTATION

Related terms Annotable Artefact

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Artefact

Definition Abstract concept denoting an element in the SDMX model having specific characteristics which are inherited by other elements.

Context Artefacts provide features which are reusable by derived elements to support general functionality such as identity, versioning etc.

Examples of SDMX artefacts are "Identifiable Artefacts" and "Maintainable Artefacts".

Concept ID ARTEFACT

Related terms Annotable Artefact

Identifiable Artefact

Maintainable Artefact

Nameable Artefact

Versionable Artefact

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Attachment level

Definition Property of an attribute defining the object to which data or metadata are linked.

Context For each attribute specified in a data structure, there is a definition of whether this attribute takes:

- a value for each observation in the Data Set

- a value for each time series in the Data Set

- a value for each group in the Data Set

- a single value for the entire Data Set.

Some metadata concepts (e.g. frequency) may not be meaningful at the observation level, but only when applied to a higher level (e.g. to a time series of observations). Time, on the other hand, is meaningful at observation level, because every observation is associated with a specific point or period in time. Data Structure Definitions and Metadata Structure Definitions provide information about the level at which a particular concept descriptor is relevant: at observation level, time series level, group level, dataset level or even Agency level. This is known as the "attachment level" of the concept.

This is a version 2.0 construct. In version 2.1 this is known as the "Attribute Relationship".

Concept ID ATTACHMENT_LEV

Related terms Attribute

Attribute Relationship

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Attribute

Definition Statistical concept providing qualitative information about a specific statistical object.

Context The specific statistical object in a Data Set can be a Data Set, Observation, Series Key or partial key, and in a Metadata Set can be any object in the SDMX Information Model. Concepts such as units, magnitude, currency of denomination, titles (these are all commonly specified as attributes in a data structure) and methodological comments, quality statements (commonly specified as attributes in a metadata structure) can be used as attributes in the context of an agreed data exchange.

The Attribute Value is the reported value in a Data Set or a Metadata Set such as a specific currency or a specific dissemination policy applicable to the object to which the Attribute Value is attached.

Concept ID ATTRIBUTE

Related terms Attachment level

Constraint

Dataflow

Data Structure Definition, DSD

Metadata Structure Definition, MSD

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Attribute Relationship

Definition Specification of the type of artefact to which a data attribute can be attached in a Data Set.

Context A part of the specification of Attribute in a Data Structure Definition denotes to which part of the data the Attribute can relate in a Data Set. This can be the entire Data Set, specific grouping of the Dimensions, or an Observation.

This is a version 2.1 construct. In version 2.0 this was known as the "attachment level".

Concept ID ATTRIBUTE_REL

Related terms Attachment level

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Base period

Definition Period of time used as the base of an index number, or to which a constant series refers.

Context The base period refers to the period when the published index is 100, or to which weights or base data refer to. It can be one single year (e.g. 1995=100) but it may be as short as one day or as long as a specified number of years. "Base period" may include an indication of the value of the series in the base period (usually 1 or 100).

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID BASE_PER

Recommended representation Observational Time Period; Codelist; String

Codelist ID CL_BASE_PER

Related terms Base weight

Reference period

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Base weight

Definition Weights of a weighting system for an index number computed according to the information relating to the base period instead, for example, of the current period.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID BASE_WEIGHT

Recommended representation Codelist; Decimal; String

Codelist ID CL_BASE_WEIGHT

Related terms Base period

Source The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, Yadolah Dodge (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003

Bilateral exchange

Definition Exchange of data and/or metadata between a sending organisation and a receiving organisation where all aspects of the exchange process are agreed between counterparties, including the mechanism for exchange of data and metadata, the formats, the frequency or schedule, and the mode used for communications regarding the exchange.

Context Apart from bilateral exchange, the SDMX initiative identifies two other basic forms of exchange of statistics and metadata between organisations, i.e. multilateral exchange and data-sharing.

Concept ID BILAT_EXCHGE

Recommended representation String

Related terms Data exchange

Data sharing

Multilateral exchange

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Break reason

Definition Attribute that describes the reason for a break in a time series.

Context Time series breaks can be explained by changes to classifications, methodology, survey scope, data sources, etc.

Concept ID BREAK_REASON

Recommended representation Codelist; String

Related terms Series

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 2.0", October 2018 (https://sdmx.org/)

Category

Definition Structural metadata concept that classifies structural metadata objects.

Context The Category can link to any identifiable object and can help discovery of structural metadata. In a data dissemination or data collection system the Category will probably link to a Dataflow or Metadataflow to support data or metadata discovery or data or metadata collection management.

The Category can link to multiple identifiable objects and any identifiable object can link to multiple categories, possibly in different Category Schemes.

The link between a single category and a single identifiable object is contained in a Categorisation.

Concept ID CATEGORY

Related terms Category Scheme

Dataflow

Metadataflow

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Category Scheme

Definition Descriptive information for a subdivision of categories into groups based on characteristics, which the objects have in common.

Context The Category Scheme comprises a hierarchy of categories which may include any type of useful classification for the organisation of data and metadata.

Concept ID CATEGORY_SCH

Related terms Category

Item Scheme

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Civil status

Definition Legal, conjugal status of each individual in relation to the marriage laws or customs of the country.

Context The civil status is often referred to as marital status and represented through codes of the respective Codelist.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CIVIL_STATUS

Recommended representation Codelist

Codelist ID CL_CIVIL_STATUS

Source United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE), Eurostat, "Recommendations for the 2000 censuses of population and housing in the ECE region", New York and Geneva, 1998 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/2000_censuses_ECE_region_EN.pdf)

Other link(s) Codelist CIVIL_STATUS (https://sdmx.org/?page_id=3215)

Classification: See "Statistical classification"

 

Classification system

Definition Metadata element used to a) list the classification(s) being used for a given Data Set or set of Data Sets, and b) describe how these conform to internationally agreed standards, guidelines, or good practices.

Context When relevant, deviations from statistical standards, guidelines, or good practices, should be documented.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CLASS_SYSTEM

Recommended representation String

Related terms Statistical classification

Source Eurostat, "Technical Manual of the Single Integrated Metadata Structure (SIMS)", Luxembourg, 2014 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SIMS_Manual_2014.pdf)

Code

Definition Language-independent set of letters, numbers or symbols that represent a concept whose meaning is described in a natural language.

Context The Code in SDMX contains the Id (the code), and a name and description either or both of which can be multi-lingual.

Concept ID CODE

Related terms Coding Format

Constraint

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Codelist

Definition Predefined set of terms from which some statistical coded concepts take their values.

Context The SDMX technical standards are sufficiently generic to allow institutions to adopt and implement any specific representation. However, the use of common Codelists will facilitate users to work even more efficiently as it eases the maintenance of, and reduces the need for, mapping systems and interfaces delivering data and metadata to users. Therefore, a choice over Codelists has a great impact on the efficiency of data sharing.

From version 2.1 of the standard it is possible to exchange and disseminate a partial Codelist which is extracted from the full Codelist and which supports the dimension values valid for a particular Data Structure Definition (DSD). The content of the partial Codelist is specified on a Constraint and can be specified for any object to which a Constraint may be attached. This makes it possible to use common (and often quite large) Codelists in multiple DSDs and then to limit their content for use in a specific DSD.

Concept ID CODELIST

Related terms Coding Format

Constraint

Item Scheme

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Other link(s) SDMX, "Guidelines for the Creation and Management of SDMX Codelists" (https://sdmx.org/?page_id=4345)

List of available SDMX cross-domain codelists (https://sdmx.org/?page_id=3215)

Coding Format

Definition Specification of the Representation for the Codes in a Codelist.

Context The specification of the format information for the Codes, such as whether the Codes are alphabetic, numeric or alphanumeric, and the code length.

Concept ID CODING_FORMAT

Related terms Code

Codelist

Level

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Coherence

Definition Adequacy of statistics to be reliably combined in different ways and for various uses.

Context When originating from different sources, and in particular from statistical surveys using different methodology, statistics are often not completely identical, but show differences in results due to different collection methodology concepts, classifications and methodological standards. There are several areas where the assessment of coherence is regularly conducted: between provisional and final statistics, between annual and short-term statistics, between statistics from the same socio-economic domain, and between survey statistics and national accounts.

The concept of coherence is closely related to the concept of comparability between statistical domains. Both coherence and comparability refer to a Data Set with respect to another. The difference between the two is that comparability refers to comparisons between statistics based on usually unrelated statistical populations and coherence refers to comparisons between statistics for the same or largely similar populations.

In the Data Quality Assessment Framework (DQAF) of the International Monetary Fund, the term "consistency" is used for indicating "logical and numerical coherence". In that framework, "internal consistency" and "intersectoral and cross-domain consistency" can be mapped to "internal coherence" and "cross-domain coherence" respectively.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COHERENCE

Recommended representation String

Related terms Coherence - cross-domain

Coherence - internal

Coherence - National Accounts

Coherence - sub-annual and annual statistics

Comparability

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Coherence - cross domain

Definition Extent to which statistics are reconcilable with those obtained through other Data Sources or statistical domains.

Context This metadata element is used to describe the differences in the statistical results calculated on the basis of different statistical domains, or surveys based on different methodologies (e.g. between annual and short-term statistics or between social statistics and national accounts).

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COHER_X_DOM

Recommended representation String

Related terms Coherence

Coherence - internal

Coherence - National Accounts

Coherence - sub-annual and annual statistics

Source Eurostat, "Technical Manual of the Single Integrated Metadata Structure (SIMS)", Luxembourg, 2014 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SIMS_Manual_2014.pdf)

Coherence - internal

Definition Extent to which statistics are consistent within a given Data Set.

Context This metadata element is used to describe the differences in the statistical results calculated for the same statistical domain, based on stable or changing methodology (e.g. between provisional and final statistics or between different reference years showing break in series). Frequently, a group of statistics of a different type (in monetary value, in volume or constant price, price indicators, etc.) measure the same phenomenon using different methodologies. For instance, statistics on employment, depending on whether they result from employers' declarations or household surveys do not lead exactly to the same results. However, there are often differences in the concepts used (de-jure or de-facto population, for instance), in the registration date, in the cif/fob registration for external trade, etc. It is very important to check that these representations do not diverge too much in order to anticipate users' questions and for preparing corrective actions.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COHER_INTERNAL

Recommended representation String

Related terms Coherence

Coherence - cross-domain

Coherence - National Accounts

Coherence - sub-annual and annual statistics

Source Eurostat, "Technical Manual of the Single Integrated Metadata Structure (SIMS)", Luxembourg, 2014 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SIMS_Manual_2014.pdf)

Comment

Definition Descriptive text which can be attached to data or metadata.

Context In data messages, a comment may be defined as an Attribute and can contain a descriptive text which can be attached to any construct specified in the Attribute Relationship.

In Metadata Sets a comment can be attached to any object in the SDMX Information Model that can be identified (known as an "Identifiable Artefact" in the model). For example Agency, Provision Agreement, Dataflow, Code, Concept.

In both of these types of messages the relevant Concept (e.g. COMMENT) must be declared in the structure definition (Data Structure Definition or Metadata Structure Definition) together with the object to which it is allowed to be attached in the Data Set or Metadata Set. Note that in a data structure (version 2.1 onwards) it is possible to define the "Attribute Relationship" of any Concept used as an Attribute to more than one of Data Set, group, series, observation. This is not possible using version 2.0. In version 2.0 it is necessary to declare multiple Concepts (e.g. COMMENT_TS, COMMENT_OBS) to achieve this.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COMMENT

Recommended representation String

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Comparability

Definition Extent to which differences between statistics can be attributed to differences between the true values of the statistical characteristics.

Context Comparability aims at measuring the impact of differences in applied statistical concepts and definitions on the comparison of statistics between geographical areas, non-geographical dimensions, or over time. Comparability of statistics, i.e. their usefulness in drawing comparisons and contrast among different populations, is a complex concept, difficult to assess in precise or absolute terms. In general terms, it means that statistics for different populations can be legitimately aggregated, compared and interpreted in relation to each other or against some common standard. Metadata must convey such information that will help any interested party in evaluating comparability of the data, which is the result of a multitude of factors.

In some quality assurance frameworks, e.g. the European Statistics Code of Practice, comparability is strictly associated with the coherence of statistics.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COMPARABILITY

Recommended representation String

Related terms Coherence

Comparability - geographical

Comparability - over time

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Comparability - geographical

Definition Extent to which statistics are comparable between geographical areas.

Context Geographical comparability refers to the degree of comparability between similar survey results measuring the same phenomenon across geographical areas or regions. The surveys are in general conducted by different statistical agencies, referring to populations in different geographical areas, sometimes based on a harmonised methodology.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COMPAR_GEO

Recommended representation String

Related terms Comparability

Comparability - over time

Source Eurostat, "Technical Manual of the Single Integrated Metadata Structure (SIMS)", Luxembourg, 2014 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SIMS_Manual_2014.pdf)

Comparability - over time

Definition Extent to which statistics are comparable or reconcilable over time.

Context Comparability over time refers to the degree of comparability between the results of two or several surveys related to the same domain, carried out by the same statistical agency.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COMPAR_TIME

Recommended representation String

Related terms Comparability

Comparability - geographical

Source Eurostat, "Technical Manual of the Single Integrated Metadata Structure (SIMS)", Luxembourg, 2014 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SIMS_Manual_2014.pdf)

Compiling agency

Definition Organisation collecting and/or elaborating the data being reported.

Context The concept is needed as two agencies might be compiling the exact same data but using different sources or concepts (the latter would be partially captured by the Dimensions). The provider ID may not be sufficient, as one provider could disseminate the data compiled by different compiling agencies.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COMPILING_ORG

Recommended representation Codelist

Codelist ID CL_ORGANISATION (used in order to use an agency-based Codelist that is also shared by other concepts; however, a different ID and separate Codelist may be suitable if the use case of this concept is different to that of an agency-based Codelist).

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Component

Definition Structural artefact used to define the structure of a Data or Metadata Set.

Context In the SDMX Information Model it is an abstract super class whose sub classes are the content of a Data Structure Definition or Metadata Structure Definition such as a Dimension or Attribute.

A "Component List" is an abstract super class whose sub classes are the lists of Dimensions, Attributes, and Measures defined in a content of a Data Structure Definition key family or Metadata Structure Definition.

The Component specification includes its Representation which can be enumerated or non-enumerated. An enumerated Representation of a Component links to a Codelist and a non-enumerated Representation is specified in terms of Facets which define characteristics such as "string", "integer", "Observational Time Period" etc.

Concept ID COMPONENT

Related terms Facet

Metadata Structure Definition, MSD

SDMX Information Model, SDMX-IM

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Concept

Definition Unit of thought created by a unique combination of characteristics.

Context At an abstract level, a Concept is defined in the Generic Statistical Information Model (GSIM) as a "unit of thought differentiated by characteristics". Concepts are used in different ways throughout the statistical lifecycle, and each role of a Concept is described using different information objects (which are subtypes of Concept). A Concept can be used in these situations:

(a) As a characteristic. The Concept is used by a Variable to describe the particular characteristic that is to be measured about a Population. For example, to measure the Concept of gender in a population of adults in the Netherlands, the Variable combines this Concept with the Unit Type "person".

(b) As a Unit Type or a Population. To describe the set of objects that information is to be obtained about in a statistical survey. For example, the Population of adults in Netherlands based on the Unit Type of persons.

(c) As a Category to further define details about a Concept. For example, Male and Female for the Concept of Gender. Codes can be linked to a Category via a Node (i.e., a Code Item or Classification Item), for use within a Codelist or Statistical Classification.

In SDMX the concept can be given a Core Representation such as a reference to a Codelist for an enumerated Representation or other values such as "integer" or "string" for a non-enumerated Representation. This Representation can be overridden in the data structure when the concept is used as a Dimension or Attribute. A Concept with a core representation could be regarded as a represented variable.

Concept ID CONCEPT

Related terms Concept Scheme

Dimension

Metadata Structure Definition, MSD

Source United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Generic Statistical Information Model (GSIM) Specification (Version 1.1, December 2013) (http://www1.unece.org/stat/platform/display/gsim/Generic+Statistical+Information+Model)

Concept Scheme

Definition Set of Concepts that are used in a Data Structure Definition or Metadata Structure Definition.

Context Structural definitions of both data and reference metadata associate specific statistical concepts with their representations, whether textual, coded, etc. In SDMX these Concepts are taken from a "Concept Scheme" which is maintained by a specific Agency. Concept Schemes group a set of Concepts, provide their definitions and names. It is possible for a single Concept Scheme to be used both for data structures and metadata structures. A core representation of each Concept can be specified (e.g. a Codelist, or other Representations such as "date").

Concept ID CONCEPT_SCH

Related terms Concept

Item Scheme

Reference metadata

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Confidentiality

Definition Property of data indicating whether they are subject to dissemination restrictions.

Context Data are protected by confidentiality in cases where unauthorised disclosure could be prejudicial or harmful to the interest of the source or other relevant parties. For instance, data allowing the identification of a physical or legal person, either directly or indirectly, may be characterised as confidential according to the relevant national or international legislation. Unauthorised disclosure of data that are restricted or confidential is not permitted and even legislative measures or other formal provisions may be used to prevent disclosure. Often, there are procedures in place to prevent disclosure of restricted or confidential data, including rules applying to staff, aggregation rules when disseminating data, provision of unit records, etc.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONF

Recommended representation String

Related terms Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidentiality - policy

Confidentiality - redistribution authorisation policy

Confidentiality - status

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Other link(s) SDMX, "Guidelines for Confidentiality and Embargo in SDMX" (https://sdmx.org/?page_id=4345)

Confidentiality - data treatment

Definition Rules applied for treating the Data Set to ensure that private information from individual units cannot be accessed and to prevent unauthorised disclosure.

Context This metadata element is used to describe the rules applied when treating the data with regard to statistical confidentiality (e.g. controlled rounding, cell suppression, aggregation of disclosive information, aggregation rules on aggregated confidential data, primary confidentiality with regard to single data values, etc.).

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONF_DATA_TR

Recommended representation String

Related terms Confidentiality

Confidentiality - policy

Confidentiality - redistribution authorisation policy

Confidentiality - status

Source Eurostat, "Technical Manual of the Single Integrated Metadata Structure (SIMS)", Luxembourg, 2014 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SIMS_Manual_2014.pdf)

Confidentiality - policy

Definition Legislative measures or other formal procedures which prevent unauthorised disclosure of data that identify a person or economic entity either directly or indirectly.

Context This metadata element is used to provide textual descriptions and references to legislation or other rules related to statistical confidentiality. It should provide the assurance that all necessary methods assuring confidentiality have been applied to the data.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONF_POLICY

Recommended representation String

Related terms Confidentiality

Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidentiality - redistribution authorisation policy

Confidentiality - status

Source Eurostat, "Technical Manual of the Single Integrated Metadata Structure (SIMS)", Luxembourg, 2014 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SIMS_Manual_2014.pdf)

Confidentiality - redistribution authorisation policy

Definition Secondary recipient(s) to whom the sender allows the primary recipient to forward restricted data.

Context This concept is used in the exchange of restricted data in cases where the sender explicitly allows subsequent forwarding of these data to other organisations.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONF_REDIST

Recommended representation String

Related terms Confidentiality

Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidentiality - policy

Confidentiality - status

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Confidentiality - status

Definition Information about the confidentiality status of the object to which this attribute is attached.

Context This concept is related to data and determines the exact status of the value. i.e. if a specific value is confidential or not. This concept is always coded, i.e. it takes its value from the respective Codelist.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONF_STATUS

Recommended representation Codelist

Codelist ID CL_CONF_STATUS

Related terms Confidentiality

Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidentiality - policy

Confidentiality - redistribution authorisation policy

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Other link(s) Codelist CL_CONF_STATUS (https://sdmx.org/?page_id=3215)

Constraint

Definition Specification of a subset of the possible content of data or metadata that can be derived from the Codelists used in a data or metadata structure.

Context There are two types of Constraints: Content Constraints and Attachment Constraints.

A Content Constraint specifies either the "allowable content" (used to restrict the values allowed when data or metadata are reported or exchanged), or the "actual" content (Series Keys and/or Dimension and Attribute Values present in a Data Source). In each of these cases the Constraint specifies a sub set of the full cube of data that could theoretically be present according to the specification of the Data Structure Definition or Metadata Structure Definition.

An Attachment Constraint describes subsets of the content of a Data or Metadata Set in terms of the content regions or in terms of the set of key combinations to which attributes or reference metadata (as defined by structure definitions) may be attached.

Concept ID CONSTRAINT

Related terms Attribute

Code

Codelist

Member Selection

Member Value

Metadata Key Set

Metadata key value

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Contact

Definition Individual or organisational contact points for the data or metadata.

Context "Contact" describes contact points for the data or metadata, including how to reach the contact points.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONTACT

Recommended representation String

Related terms Contact email address

Contact fax number

Contact mail

Contact name

Contact organisation

Contact organisation unit

Contact person function

Contact phone number

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Contact email address

Definition E-mail address of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONTACT_EMAIL

Recommended representation String

Related terms Contact

Contact fax number

Contact mail

Contact name

Contact organisation

Contact organisation unit

Contact person function

Contact phone number

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Contact fax number

Definition Fax number of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONTACT_FAX

Recommended representation String

Related terms Contact

Contact email address

Contact mail address

Contact name

Contact organisation

Contact organisation unit

Contact person function

Contact phone number

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Contact mail address

Definition Postal address of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONTACT_MAIL

Recommended representation String

Related terms Contact

Contact email address

Contact fax number

Contact name

Contact organisation

Contact organisation unit

Contact person function

Contact phone number

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Contact name

Definition Name of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONTACT_NAME

Recommended representation String

Related terms Contact

Contact email address

Contact fax number

Contact mail address

Contact organisation

Contact organisation unit

Contact person function

Contact phone number

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Contact organisation

Definition Organisation of the contact point(s) for the data or metadata.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONTACT_ORGANISATION

Recommended representation String; Codelist

Codelist ID CL_ORGANISATION

Related terms Contact

Contact email address

Contact fax number

Contact mail address

Contact name

Contact organisation unit

Contact person function

Contact phone number

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Contact organisation unit

Definition Addressable subdivision of an organisation.

Context This contact refers to the contact point for data and metadata.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID ORGANISATION_UNIT

Recommended representation String

Related terms Contact

Contact email address

Contact fax number

Contact mail address

Contact name

Contact organisation

Contact person function

Contact phone number

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Contact person function

Definition Area of technical responsibility of the contact, such as "methodology", "database management" or "dissemination".

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONTACT_FUNCT

Recommended representation String

Related terms Contact

Contact email address

Contact fax number

Contact mail address

Contact name

Contact organisation

Contact organisation unit

Contact phone number

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Contact phone number

Definition Telephone number of the contact points for the data or metadata.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CONTACT_PHONE

Recommended representation String

Related terms Contact

Contact email address

Contact fax number

Contact mail address

Contact name

Contact organisation

Contact organisation unit

Contact person function

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Content-Oriented Guidelines, COG

Definition Practices for creating interoperable elements in the SDMX model using the SDMX Technical Specifications.

Context The SDMX Content-Oriented Guidelines comprise the Cross-Domain Concepts, the Cross-Domain Codelists, the Statistical Subject-Matter Domains, the SDMX Glossary, and various other guidelines providing guidance to implementers on specific issues relating to SDMX implementation (e.g. "Guidelines for the Creation and Management of SDMX Code Lists", "Guidelines for Confidentiality and Embargo in SDMX"). The Guidelines focus on the harmonisation of specific concepts and terminology that are common to a large number of statistical domains. Such harmonisation is useful for the efficient exchange of comparable data and metadata.

Concept ID COG

Related terms Cross-Domain Codelist, CDCL

Cross-Domain Concept, CDC

Statistical subject-matter domain

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Other link(s) SDMX, "Content-Oriented Guidelines" (https://sdmx.org/?page_id=4345)

Cost and burden

Definition Cost associated with the collection and production of a statistical product, as well as the burden imposed on respondents.

Context The cost is associated with a statistical product and can be financial, human or time-related. It may consist of staff costs, data collection costs and other costs related to reporting obligations.

The burden is often measured by costs for the respondents (businesses, institutions, households, individuals) imposed by a statistical obligation. The overall burden of delivering the information depends on: a) the number of respondents; b) the average time required to provide the information, including time spent after receipt of the questionnaire ("recontact time"); and c) the hourly cost of a respondent's time.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COST_BURDEN

Recommended representation String

Related terms Cost and burden - efficiency management

Cost and burden - resources

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Cost and burden - efficiency management

Definition Cost-benefit analysis, effectiveness of execution of medium term statistical programmes, and ensuring efficient use of resources.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COST_BURDEN_EFF

Recommended representation String

Related terms Cost and burden

Cost and burden - resources

Source IMF, Data Quality Assessment Framework (May 2012) (https://dsbb.imf.org/dqrs/DQAF)

Cost and burden - resources

Definition Metadata element providing assurances that staff, facilities, computing resources, and financing to undertake statistical production are commensurate with statistical programs.

Context It may include the contribution of respondent time in supplying information (burden) as a distinct subject under this heading.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COST_BURDEN_RES

Recommended representation String

Related terms Cost and burden

Cost and burden - efficiency management

Source IMF, Data Quality Assessment Framework (May 2012), (https://dsbb.imf.org/dqrs/DQAF).

Counterpart reference area

Definition Secondary area, as opposed to reference area, to which the measured data are in relation.

Context The "counterpart area" (also known as "vis-a-vis area") is related to statistics on foreign trade, migration or other domains. It determines, from the point of view of the reporting country, the corresponding area to which the economic or other flows are related to (for instance, in statistics on imports, the counterpart reference area is the area of origin of the goods).

A categorisation of IDs per attachment level (COUNTERPART_AREA_DSET for dataset, COUNTERPART_AREA_GRP for group) is recommended.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COUNTERPART_AREA

Recommended representation Codelist

Codelist ID CL_AREA

Related terms Reference area

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Other link(s) Codelist CL_AREA (https://sdmx.org/?page_id=3215)

Coverage

Definition Definition of the scope of the data compiled.

Context This metadata element is used to describe the key dimensions delimiting the statistics produced, e.g. geographical, products, economic and other sectors, industry, occupation, transactions, etc., as well as relevant exceptions and exclusions. It can also specify the period of time for which data are provided.

The term "Coverage" describes the scope of the data compiled, rather than the characteristics of the survey.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COVERAGE

Recommended representation String; Codelist

Codelist ID CL_COVERAGE

Related terms Coverage error

Geographical coverage

Population coverage

Sector coverage

Time coverage

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 2.0", October 2018 (https://sdmx.org/)

Coverage error

Definition Error caused by a failure to cover adequately all components of the population being studied, which results in differences between the target population and the sampling frame.

Context Coverage errors include over-coverage, under-coverage and misclassification. Incomplete sampling frames often result in coverage errors.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COVERAGE_ERR

Recommended representation String

Related terms Measurement error

Model assumption error

Non-response error

Non-sampling error

Over-coverage rate

Processing error

Source Statistical Office of the United Nations, "Handbook of Household Surveys, Revised Edition", (para. 8.4), Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 31, United Nations, New York, 1984 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/household_surveys_1984_EN.pdf)

Cross-domain Codelist, CDCL

Definition SDMX Codelist meeting at least one of the criteria below:

1) Potential application across all statistical domains.

2) Codelist maintained by the SDMX Statistical Working Group (SWG) on its initiative

3) Codelist recommended as CDCL by the SDMX SWG although they are in principle maintained by third organisations.

Context 1) Potential application across all statistical domains.

Examples: CL_OBS_STATUS, CL_CONF_STATUS, CL_DECIMALS, CL_UNIT_MULT, CL_AREA.

Explanatory note: Key term for this criterion is "potential". These Codelists must not necessarily be implemented in all Data Structure Definitions (DSDs) but they potentially could. For example, Codelist "Unit multiplier" could possibly be used in all implementations dealing with statistical figures but some implementations might not see the need for such a Dimension because the statistical values do not require it, e.g. average number of children per household. Inversely, in this example a Codelist for decimals will be absolutely necessary.

2) Codelists maintained by the SWG on its initiative because 1) they are intended for broad use within the SDMX community and 2) there is a strong need for harmonisation across domains which are not necessarily closely connected with each other.

Examples for case 1: CL_AGE, CL_CIVIL_STATUS, CL_FREQ, CL_TIME_FORMAT, CL_SEX, CL_ADJUSTMENT.

Explanatory note: By proposing such Codelists it is hoped to promote harmonisation across domains and provide ready-to-use artefacts to implementers.

Example for case 2: CL_ACTIVITY.

Explanatory note: International activity classifications are typically used in different statistical domains (e.g. economic versus social statistics). Without an established CDCL made available in centralised registries, the risk is that one domain develops a Codelist without taking into account the fact that other domains might use the same classification system.

3) Codelists recommended as CDCL by the SDMX Statistical Working Group (SWG) although they are in principle maintained by third organisations.

Examples: CL_AREA (based on the ISO 3166 alpha-2 codes for countries); CL_CURRENCY (based on the ISO 4217 3-character codes for currencies).

Explanatory note: In these cases, the value added by the SWG is to propose guidelines on specific methodological issues, e.g. how to code a country that has been split into several new entities.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CDCL

Related terms Content-Oriented Guidelines, COG

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Cross-domain Concept, CDC

Definition Standard Concept, covering structural and reference metadata, which should be used in several statistical domains wherever possible to enhance possibilities of the exchange of data and metadata between organisations.

Context Cross-domain Concepts are envisaged to cover various elements describing statistical data and their quality. When exchanging statistics, institutions can select from a standard set of content-oriented concepts. The list of concepts and their definitions reflects recommended practices and can be the basis for mapping between internal systems when data and metadata are exchanged or shared between and among institutions.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CDC

Related terms Content-Oriented Guidelines, COG

Reference metadata

Structural metadata

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Currency

Definition Monetary denomination of the object being measured.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID CURRENCY

Recommended representation Codelist

Codelist ID CL_CURRENCY

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Other link(s) Codelist CL_CURRENCY (https://sdmx.org/?page_id=3215)

Data collection method

Definition Method applied for gathering data for official statistics.

Context There are a number of data collection methods used for official statistics, including computer-aided personal or telephone interview (CAPI/CATI), mailed questionnaires, electronic or internet questionnaires, direct observation, administrative data sources, web-scraping and crowdsourcing sources. The data collection may be exclusively for statistical purposes, or primarily for non-statistical purposes.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID COLL_METHOD

Recommended representation String

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Data compilation

Definition Operations performed on data to derive new information according to a given set of rules.

Context In quality assurance frameworks, "Data compilation" refers to the description of statistical procedures used for producing intermediate data and final statistical outputs. Data compilation covers, among other things, the use of weighting schemes, methods for imputing missing values or source data, statistical adjustment, balancing/cross-checking techniques and relevant characteristics of the specific methods applied.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID DATA_COMP

Recommended representation String

Related terms Data validation

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Data Consumer

Definition Entity that uses data.

Context An organisation can play a number of organisation roles. In the SDMX Information Model, three roles are identified at present: Data Provider; Data Consumer; Maintenance Agency. The Data Consumer is relevant for data and reference metadata dissemination. Such systems may require access control. The Data Consumer can be linked to the Dataflows and Metadataflows via a Provision Agreement thus enabling a dissemination system to validate which consumers have access to which data and reference metadata.

Concept ID DATA_CONSUM

Related terms Item Scheme

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Data Consumer Scheme

Definition Maintained collection of Data Consumers.

Context In SDMX a Data Consumer Scheme comprises a non-hierarchic list of Data Consumers. Each maintenance agency can have a single Data Consumer Scheme, and may have none. The identity of the Data Consumer is a combination of the identity of the Data Consumer Scheme (which includes the maintenance agency) in which it resides and the identity of the Data Consumer in that scheme.

Concept ID DATA_CONSUM_SCH

Related terms Agency Scheme

Data Provider Scheme

Item Scheme

Maintenance agency

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Data exchange

Definition Process of sending and receiving data.

Context Data exchange should take place in such a manner that the information content or meaning assigned to the data is not altered during the transmission.

Concept ID DATA_EXCHGE

Recommended representation String

Related terms Bilateral exchange

Data sharing

Multilateral exchange

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Data extraction date

Definition Date and time that the data are gathered from a Data Source.

Context This information is in the Header of a Data Set, typically for processing by the receiving system in its administration of the Data Set.

Concept ID DATA_EXTRACT_DATE

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Data description

Definition Metadata element describing the main characteristics of the Data Set in an easily understandable manner, referring to the main data and indicators disseminated.

Context This summary description should provide an immediate understanding of the data to users (also to those who do not have a broader technical knowledge of the Data Set in question).

Data can be displayed to users as tables, graphs or maps. According to the United Nations' Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics, the choice of appropriate presentation methods should be made in accordance with professional considerations. Data presentation includes the description of the Data Set disseminated with the main variables covered, the classifications and breakdowns used, the reference area, a summary information on the time period covered and, if applicable, the base period used.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID DATA_DESCR

Recommended representation String

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 2.0", October 2018 (https://sdmx.org/)

Dataflow

Definition Structure which describes, categorises and constrains the allowable content of a Data Set that providers will supply for different reference periods.

Context In SDMX, Data Sets are reported or disseminated according to a Dataflow Definition. The Dataflow Definition identifies the Data Structure Definition and may be associated with one or more subject-matter domains. This facilitates the search for data according to organised Category Schemes.

A "Dataflow", in this context, is an abstract Concept of the Data Sets, i.e. a structure without any data. While a Data Structure Definition defines Dimensions, Attributes, Measures and associated representation that comprise the valid structure of data and related metadata contained in a Data Set, the Dataflow Definition associates a Data Structure Definition with one or more Category. This gives a system the ability to state which Data Sets are to be reported for a given Category and which Data Sets can be reported using the Data Structure Definition. The Dataflow Definition may also have additional metadata attached, defining qualitative information and Constraints on the use of the Data Structure Definition, in terms of reporting periodicity or specifying the subset of Codes to be used in a Dimension.

Concept ID DATAFLOW

Related terms Attribute

Category

Data Set

Metadataflow

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Data Provider

Definition Organisation or individual that reports or disseminates data or reference metadata.

Context Data Providers are maintained in a Data Provider Scheme.

The Data Provider can be linked to the type of data (Dataflow) or reference metadata (Metadata Flow) that it reports or disseminates. This link provides the data collection system or data dissemination system.

Concept ID DATA_PROVIDER

Type Cross-domain concept

Recommended representation String; Codelist

Codelist ID CL_ORGANISATION (used in order to use an agency-based Codelist that is also shared by other concepts; however, a different ID and separate Codelist may be suitable if the use-case of this concept is different to that of an agency-based Codelist).

Related terms Data Provider Scheme

Item Scheme

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Data Provider Scheme

Definition Maintained collection of Data Providers.

Context In SDMX a Data Provider Scheme contains a non-hierarchic list of Data Providers. Each maintenance agency can have a single Data Provider Scheme, and may have none. The identity of the Data Provider is a combination of the identity of the Data Provider Scheme (which includes the maintenance agency) in which it resides and the identity of the Data Provider in that scheme.

The Data Provider is the owning organisation of data and reference metadata. These data and reference metadata are reported, exchanged, or disseminated as SDMX Data Sets and SDMX Metadata Sets. The type of data and metadata that are available are specified in a Dataflow and Metadataflow. The union of one Data Provider and one Dataflow or Metadataflow is known as a Provision Agreement.

In a data collection scenario the Data Provider is the organisation reporting the data or reference metadata and information can be linked with the Provision Agreement. Information linked to the Provision Agreement can specify where the data or reference metadata are located (data registration) and the data collector (as the Agency of the Provision Agreement) can specify validation Constraints such as allowable dimension values or Series Keys for which data can be reported.

In a data dissemination scenario information linked to the Provision Agreement can specify the location of the Data Source and the content of the Data Source in terms of Series Keys available (Constraint).

Concept ID DATA_PROV_SCH

Related terms Agency scheme

Data Consumer Scheme

Data Provider

Item Scheme

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Data reference period: See "Time period - collection"

 

Data revision

Definition Change in a value of a statistic released to the public.

Context Preliminary data are revised when more and better source data become available, or due to a change in methodology. "Data revision" describes the policy and practice for identifying the revision status of the data, as well as the availability of revision studies and analyses.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID DATA_REV

Recommended representation String

Related terms Data revision - policy

Data revision - practice

Data revision - studies

Source SDMX, "SDMX Glossary Version 1.0", February 2016 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/SDMX_Glossary_Version_1_0_February_2016.docx)

Data revision - policy

Definition Policy aimed at ensuring the transparency of disseminated data, whereby preliminary data are compiled that are later revised.

Context This metadata element is used to describe the general guidelines for handling data revisions applied by a data providing agency.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID REV_POLICY

Recommended representation String

Related terms Data revision

Data revision - practice

Data revision - studies

Source Eurostat, "Technical Manual of the Single Integrated Metadata Structure (SIMS)", Luxembourg, 2014 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/statmanuals/files/SIMS_Manual_2014.pdf)

Data revision - practice

Definition Information on the data revision practice.

Context This metadata element is used to provide documentation regarding the source data used and the way they are adjusted, in order to give compilers the possibility of incorporating new and more accurate information into estimates, thus improving their accuracy without introducing breaks in the time series. It also describes the revision status of available data.

Data may also be subject to regular or ad hoc revisions as a result of the introduction of new classifications, compilation frameworks and methodologies which result in the compilation of historical data that replace previously released data. Whether or not such changes constitute an actual "revision" or the compilation of a "new" series is a matter of judgment to be done by the statistical agency.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID REV_PRACTICE

Recommended representation String

Related terms Data revision

Data revision - policy

Data revision - studies

Source SDMX, "Metadata Common Vocabulary", 2009 (https://sdmx.org/wp-content/uploads/04_sdmx_cog_annex_4_mcv_2009.pdf)

Data revision - studies

Definition Information about data revision studies and analyses.

Context Description of periodic studies related to data revisions. These studies can contain quantitative measures of the effects of revisions, such as mean revision and revision variance in estimates.

Type Cross-domain concept

Concept ID REV_STUDY